In the Preface to Part II of The Lives of the Artists, Vasari presents his theory on the history of western art, an idea that we take for granted today, that the Italians of the 13th century (Cimabue and Giotto) revived the arts that were decrepit and moribund. He says that they were reborn, a renaissance, and from that point onward to his own day, they continually improved until they reached a peak of accomplishment with the painting, sculpture, and architecture of Michelangelo and his contemporaries. Today, we call that the High Renaissance. But…then what?
…and I may safely declare that its art has achieved everything which could possibly be permitted to an imitator of Nature, and that this period has risen so high that there is more reason to fear its decline than to expect further advances.
Nowhere to go but down. Decline-ism! The decadence. The inevitable decay from the classic ideal…
This idea is so deeply ingrained in our thinking, and it fascinates me, but I don’t agree with it. Perhaps in Vasari’s day it was a new twist on an old notion, in that he felt the peak had been reached in his own day. The Greeks had gone on about The Golden Age, sometime long before what we see as the classical apogee of ancient civilization, and felt that they were living in an age of iron. That the best times, the most beautiful times are long behind us is such a common idea – when I was a kid, things were better…Nowadays, everything is going to the dogs!…People didn’t used to do that sort of thing… – but it is often little more than nostalgia and wishful thinking. The Golden Age is one of the more serious historicist myths of The Fall: we were good once, but since then, we have decayed. With Vasari, it is more of an anxiety.
See how linear his thinking is too! Picture a graph like this one, with time moving to the right, and artistic accomplishment going up and down. One line, we move in one direction through time, in one place. But what if instead of two dimensions, we had three or four, or N? A peak in one sort of perfection at one time and place is not necessarily superior to a peak somewhere else, in some other context, of some other type. Of course, Vasari didn’t think that way for a variety of reasons.
The idea of this “natural” cycle in the arts – birth, growth, maturity, decay, death, and re-birth with luck, is obviously born of the universal experience of life and death that people have. It’s useful to a point, but the problem is identifying just what’s the peak, and what’s the trough, and doing so in a way that is somewhat objective. There is also the problem of scale, or temporal parochialism. Some people, taking a very long view, might see western art as still developing towards some very arcane, ideal state that appeals to them. Modernists at the turn of the 20th century did not so much worship the past golden age of the Renaissance as feel oppressed and exhausted by it. Duchamp declared the end of retinal art. In a way, they confirmed Vasari: the Renaissance had gone as far as one could go in imitating Nature, so they stopped trying to do that!
The anxiety of being at the peak is common in geopolitical talk as well. Decline-ism, defeatism. The Decline of the West by Spengler, and Kennedy’s much touted The Rise and Fall of Great Powers come to mind. In Spengler’s case, it was metaphysical dry rot; in Kennedy, it is the relative decline of one power and the relative rise of another that matters. Are we on our way up or on our way down? The funny thing is we don’t know. In the Middle Ages, everyone knew which way they were headed! How’s that for progress!
I think this image brings it all together nicely: modern circus fare in the form of Vanna White, hostess of the TV show, Wheel of Fortune; decadent art brought to you in the form of nudes by Sir Edward Burne-Jones; and High Renaissance art, nudes in the manner of Michelangelo.