In Chapter 23 of Book XIV of Saint Augustine’s City of God, the good doctor deals with some very thorny delicate questions. He is considering the nature of Adam and Eve’s fall after they ate of the Tree of Knowledge, and thinking of just what was the state of their souls, and their virtue, before the fall. A question arises: Would procreation have taken place in paradise, if no one had sinned?
Why does this question of sin and sex arise? Well, as a Christian, Augustine is at pains to show time and again how the lusts of the body are evil, man’s state of thralldom to his passions turns him from goodness and virtue, and towards damnation, and that the saintly path of renunciation of the flesh is the means to salvation. But, surely, God did not intend for Adam and Eve to live in purity for all eternity by themselves! All alone in that great big garden of Eden? No – it was necessary for the number of saints to increase to its fixed limit (somehow I missed this bit of theology, but when the number of saintly humans reaches a certain value, it will be time for the Last Days), so naturally, Adam and Eve had to have children, had to…do…it. But sex without sin, without lust, without base animality is not possible, correct? Ah, not so!
Augustine proceeds to describe to us just what sex without sin would be like, but he does so with great circumspection, avoiding coarse language, and trying to do without any explicit reference to the private parts, because, after all, even with such a virtuous aim, the reference could excite some people to impure thoughts. The whole business comes down to will power.
Virtuous men and women have power over their bodies. Their souls and virtue rule their body, and control its baser impulses. Just so, Adam would have ‘relaxed on the bosom of Eve’ without any enthusiasm brought on by lust and desire or impure thoughts. He would simply will his organ to do its duty just as any man can will his arm to move up and down. The entire thing would be quite wholesome and reasonable, actually. Viagra would have nothing on him!
Augustine points out that some animals seem to have control over parts of their bodies that we do not. For example, many animals can cause their hides to flex and jerk, and they do it to shoo away flies, or even to shake out spears.
Man has not this ability: but surely that does not mean that the Creator could not have bestowed it, at his pleasure, on any animate creatures?…It would not have been difficult for God to fashion him such a way that even what is now set in motion in his flesh only by lust should have been moved only by his will.
To further make his point, Augustine brings forward contemporary evidence:
We do in fact find among human beings some individuals with natural abilities very different from the rest of mankind and remarkable by their very rarity. Some people can do some things with their body which are for others utterly impossible…Some people can even move their ears, either one at a time or both together. Others without moving their heads can bring the whole scalp … down towards the forehead and bring it back again at will.
There you have it, simple! Certainly Adam could have impregnated Eve by virtuous exercise of his will, bringing his mind in its clear grasp of sinless need for children to make his body do what was necessary. Augustine is filled with such breathtaking insights, but this is only a hypothetical. We all know what really happened.