September 11, 2011

The great fountain in the Parc de la Ciutadella of Barcelona, by Josep Fontsère, with some minor work by the young Gaudi.  The horses on top have been re-gilded now.  To me, the wonderful thing about this exuberant and dramatic concoction is the way the vegetation is incorporated as part of the architectural/sculptural ensemble.


Catalan Cathedrals

September 10, 2011

The gothic cathedral style in Catalonia is a bit different from that of France, although you might not know it by looking at the façade of Barcelona’s cathedral.  When you walk in however, the difference is immediately apparent, and you see what is obvious in the plan, that there is no clear crossing making it into the shape of a cross.

Although the photograph below exaggerates the effect, you feel as if you have walked into a giant vaulted shed, and that there is no clear division of space into aisles, although everything does point towards the altar.  The French Gothic plan at the right, below, has a definite crossing aisle that is not present in Catalan Gothic churches.  Note that the crossing in the plan at the top, in Barcelona, is achieved by removing side chapels, not by extending the fabric of the church building outwards.

Why is this peculiar to the region?  It may be the more strongly lingering effect of the classical tradition, flowing from Rome, of the basilica form.  Basilicas are basically long, covered spaces that are rather wide, often with aisles formed by columns.  The are derived from the Roman public buildings used for government and social functions.  Catholic churches at first were simply basilicas with Christian symbols, and many important churches still are called by the name, e.g., Basilica of Saint Peters, the biggest of them all, despite its Christian plan with a crossing and dome at the  intersection.  The basilica form was retained during the Romanesque period, and never abandoned in Italy at all until the Renaissance.  At that point, a great debate ensued over the proper form for churches:  symmetrical with a central dome, which pleased humanist intellectuals but had pagan and Byzantine, i.e. Eastern Orthodox connotations, or the cross-form that was very respectable but associated with Barbarians by the Renaissance intellectuals.

French Gothic cathedrals often have dramatic flying buttresses to hold up their thin walls that are filled with glass, which cannot bear a load.  The outside of the apse of Girona cathedral shows only a few rather puny flying buttresses, and they ‘fly’ nearly horizontally – more like static braces.  The interior of the apse at Narbonne, not all that far from Catalonia, but definitely under the sway of the heretic-slaying northern French by the time this was built, shows the striving for lightness and soaring verticality that is just not part of the Catalan style.

The inside of Girona cathedral is big, but boxy, as is the façade.  The baroque era statuary and the tremendous flight of steps that was added accentuate the drama of its sheer mass.

You can’t talk about cathedrals in Catalonia without mentioning the church of the Sagrada Familia by Gaudi, begun in the late 19th century and scheduled for completion in about thirty years.  Some of the gothic cathedrals took centuries to complete, some were raised in a few generations.  Gaudi had his own style, inspired by gothic, art nouveau, and physics.  The main space of the Sagrada Familia is like no other interior I know or have imagined.  It seems utterly fantastic, like something that belongs in a set for Star Wars, but it is not built of plaster and steel framing – only hard, carved, heavy stones set one on another.  In this space, you seem to be inside a structural skeleton, yet unlike gothic interiors, the ribs and vaults seem to have a life of their own and they extend into and beyond the surfaces they support.

Gaudi favored the catenary arch in his buildings, a form that is developed mathematically, not from aesthetic preference.  They are often referred to as parabolic arches, but they are slightly different, as you can see in the plot below.  A catenary curve is formed when a rope hangs from two points without any load but its own weight.  A parabolic curve is formed when a rope hangs from two points and supports additional loads at even intervals of space, as with the suspension cables on a bridge.  Gaudi felt that the catenary arch, an inverted catenary curve, was best suited to carry the weight of his buildings, and he created this dizzying inverted model of the Sagrada Familia to test his designs.  Each hanging string and weight represents an arch in the stone structure.

Outside, the facades look almost traditional compared to what’s within.

Gaudi too, honored the classical tradition, sometimes in odd places.  Here, in a detail from the pavilion at the Guell Park, is a variation on the Greek Doric motif, complete with drops of water placed on the dentils in the frieze.

Homage in Catalonia

August 27, 2011

Nothing political here:  The POUM is long gone.  Just me doing pilgrimage to some architectural sites/sights that I’ve been waiting to see for a very long time.  Visiting the Casa Batlló by Antoni Gaudí was top of the list.

This pretty girl is wearing a dress that seems to fade into the reptilian roof structure on top of the house.  Inside the attic story, where the servants lived and worked, we see the narrow parabolic arches that show up in so much of Gaudi’s work.  It’s hard to see, but on the sides there are vents that allow light and air in no matter what the weather.

The center of he tall and narrow house is an air and light shaft with a small elevator, all tiled in glorious color.  The curvy window frames are equipped with triple louvers below that can be opened to regulate the air circulation.

The house was innovative for its time in having piped water and electric lights.  In this picture, you can see that he wasn’t going to simply substitute electric bulbs for the old fashioned gas  burners.  No, he slits the ceiling as though it were of fabric (or skin?) and nestles the lights within.

Barcelona has a lot of interesting things, including a vacuum system for whisking away trash.  You drop your separated trash into one of two fixtures, and it is sucked into underground pipes and to its final disposal site.  No noisy and dangerous garbage trucks rolling down crooked narrow lanes in the medieval core of the city which is a huge tourist zone.

Other architectural styles are present besides the medieval and Catalan modernismo:  here we see a building that is heavily indebted to Otto Wagner, a contemporary in Vienna.

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Modern stuff too:  a skyscraper that looks like a…cucumber?  The architect thinks it evokes a geyser of water.  And a needle by Calatrava who designed the monument to NJ commuters that is being built in the World Trade Center site.