Once again, I have to ask, “Who were they?“ These cave paintings of bison at Niaux are as good as it gets with freehand drawings. Done by torchlight, in the back of a long dangerous cave passage, with primitive brushes no less…about 15,000 years ago. The large domed chamber near these images has an excellent echo, and the guide suggested it may have been a hangout for shamans. The cave is not easy to get to, and the view from the entrance of the glacial valley is impressive. I wonder what the artists thought of it.
Meanwhile, back in the near present, i.e. about 800 years ago, this land was the Pays du Cathar, a region where a heretical sect, a sort of Manichean twist on Christianity, held sway along with the local language, langue d’oc. (Up north, ‘yes’ was oui, but down here it was said oc, thus the language of ‘oc)’. Although closely related to Catalan, it didn’t survive as well. The northern French, with the agreement of the Pope and the creation of a special French Inquisition, launched an internal crusade, known as the Albigensian Crusade after the city of Albi that was a political center of the heresy, and successfully stamped it out with great brutality. The castle at Foix, located in a stunning valley, is one of the many strong points that couldn’t hold back the tide of the north.