It’s 1715, and Louis XIV, The Sun King is near to setting. The Duke de Saint-Simon is concerned about the state of the realm after the great king, whom he detests, has passed from the scene. The Dauphin (the direct heir to the throne) is dead, and the most appropriate successor is only three years old: There must be a regency while he grows up to his majority.
The Regent will, of course, be the Duke D’Orleans, the son of Louis’ brother, Philipe d’Orleans, who was simply known as Monsieur. (He was, I believe, a homosexual, something that was tolerated in the Court for a variety of nefarious reasons. ) The Regent, an intelligent man with many good qualities, is also a bit of wag, and takes pleasure at thumbing his nose at convention. During a long church service with much music, he was seen to be assiduously following along in a prayer book. When congratulated afterwards by an old family retainer, he responded with a laugh, “You are a great ninny! I was reading Rabelais – and he showed the book’s cover.” Saint-Simon comments that this was all for show since he was quite happy to attend the mass, Rabelais or no, being a great lover of good music.
D’Orleans was a freethinker, however, and this could cause difficulties. Here Saint-Simon counsels the future Regent on how to discreetly maintain his atheism, if atheist he must be:
Most damaging of all, I continued, would be to proclaim his godlessness or anything approaching atheism: for it would make enemies of all religious bodies and at the same time antagonize every decent person who cared for morality, sobriety, and religion. He would then find turning against himself that licentious maxim which he was so fond of quoting – namely that religion is a bogy which clever men have invented in order to govern and which is therefore necessary for Kings and republics. If for that reason only, he might think it in his best interests to respect the Church and not bring it into disrepute. I dwelt long on this important subject, adding that he need not be a hypocrite, only avoid plain speaking, observe the conventions (which was not hard if one confined oneself to appearances), refuse to countenance improper jests or remarks, and generally live like an honest gentleman who respects his country’s faith and conceals the fact that he, personally, sets no store by it.